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食品的褐变与防治
点击次数:1017 发布时间:2012-07-06

Enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning reactions of amino acids and proteins with carbohydrates,
oxidized lipids, and oxidized phenols cause deterioration of food during storage and processing. The loss in nutritional quality and potentially in safety is attributed to destruction of essential amino acids, decrease in digestibility, inhibition of proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, interaction with metal ions, and formation of antinutritional and toxic compounds. Studies in this area include influence of damage to essential amino acids on nutrition and food safety, nutritional damage as a function of processing conditions, and simultaneous formation of deleterious and beneficial compounds. These compounds include kidney-damaging Maillard reaction products, mutagens, carcinogens, antimutagens, antioxidants, antibiotics, and antiallergens. This overview covers the formation, nutrition, and safety of glycated proteins, characterized browning products, and heterocyclic amines. Possible approaches to inhibiting browning reactions and preventing adverse effects of browning during food processing and food consumption, including protection against adverse effects of heterocyclic amines by N-acetylcysteine, caffeine, chlorophyll, conjugated linoleic acid. lignin, and tea extracts, are also described. This research subject covers a complex relationship of the chemistry, biology, and pathology of browning products and the impact on human nutrition and health. Future study should differentiate antinutritional and toxicological relationships, define individual and combined potencies of browning products, and develop means to prevent the formation and to minimize the adverse manifestations of the most antinutritional and toxic compounds. Such studies should lead to better and safer foods and improved human health.
 




 

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